Welcome sign on reciprocity map layed states flag on top of unit


Total CCW permits in USA
0 million

      % US Territory no permit required

      shall issue
      may issue
      no issue

      Get Your CCW Reciprocity Map

      Select your state

      Click on a state in the CCW reciprocity map below to see which states will honor your handgun permit/license.

      MAP KEY

      • Unrestricted
      • Unrestricted (limited)
      • Shall Issue
      • May Issue
      • No Issue


      Training, must notify, background checks… Maps on everything


      Active permits by state, permit fees… Facts on everything

      Tips: Traveling with a Handgun

      Quick interstate travel tips

      Constitutional concealed carry reciprocity Act 2017

      Concealed Carry History

      • 1986

        united states gun law map 1986
      • 1987, 1988

        united states gun law map 1988
      • 1989

        united states gun law map 1989
      • 1990

        united states gun law map 2017
      • 1991, 1992, 1993

        united states gun law map 1993
      • 1994

        united states gun law map 1994
      • 1995

        united states gun law map 1995
      • 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000

        US firearm reciprocity map for 2000
      • 2001, 2002

        united states gun law map 2002
      • 2003

        united states gun law map 2003
      • 2004, 2005

        united states gun law map 2005
      • 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009

        united states gun law map 2009
      • 2010

        united states gun law map 2010
      • 2011, 2012

        united states gun law map 2012
      • 2013, 2014

        united states gun law map 2014
      • 2015

        US firearm reciprocity map for 2015
      • 2016

        right to carry map 2016
      • 2017

        US firearm reciprocity map for 2017

      Hover over the map to stop the slide show

      Right To Carry (1986 – 2017)

      Until 1813 open carry and concealed carry of a firearm for self defense was accepted by all states. This changed in 1813 when Louisiana and Kentucky banned concealed carry on the grounds that only a criminal would conceal a firearm. Five more states, Alabama, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee and Virginia enacted similar concealed carry bans by 1859. This was followed by Florida, Oklahoma and Texas by 1900. Instead of an outright ban on firearms most states had opted to enact concealed carry laws by 1950. A trend towards more liberal firearms laws started in the late 1990s. A browse through the history map above will show the dramatic progression from “No Issue” or “May Issue” states to “Shall Issue” states and now “Unrestricted states”. A growing number of states are now enacting laws that allow you to conceal carry a firearm without a permit. There are now 14 states that allow permitless carry with North Dakota becoming the latest in 2017. This trend has also included more liberal CCW reciprocity laws between states.

      Reciprocity & Permits

      The use of a concealed carry reciprocity list or map will give you a much clearer view of which states will accept your permit. You can also quickly see if it applies to resident or non-resident permits and any if there are any special conditions. These maps are essential due to the varying laws from state to state and allow you to obtain faster results compared to doing your own research on state reciprocity laws. There are several states that will honor all out-of-state concealed carry permits, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio are some. And then there are states that will not recognize any out-of-state permits, California, Illinois, Maryland are a few examples. Currently, the state concealed carry permit that has the highest recognition is from Ohio being honored in 40 states.

      states that accept
      an ohio CCW permit

      If you wish to increase the number of states you can carry concealed in then the best option is to obtain multiple state permits. Although keep in mind that there are a few states that do not honor out-of-state concealed carry permits or issue permits to a person that is a non-resident. These states have basically banned non-residents from concealed carry when visiting their state. You will also find some states that have special criteria for a permit. These often include firearm safety exams or training courses. If your home state does not require these for a permit then the state you are visiting will often not honor your home states permit. There are often exemptions if a person is in the military or law enforcement. These exemptions are usually made if a person is under the minimum age of 21 and is still in the military or has been honorably discharged. If a person is in law enforcement then they are generally covered by federal law. Even if CCW reciprocity laws allow you to carry in a state you are still subject to federal law which bans any out-of-state permit holder from carrying a handgun within 1000 feet of a school. This is a federal felony but usually not enforced by local law enforcement.

      Travel Tips: For Concealed Carry

      highway with traffic used for ccw reciprocity lesson
      Most of us will need to travel interstate at some stage on business or holiday. If you have become used to carrying a concealed firearm then you will probably want to take it with you. If that is the case then to make your trip go as smoothly as possible without any unforeseen problems you will need to do some research on your destination states reciprocity gun laws. This is a serious matter as some states can sentence you to a term of imprisonment of up to 15 years for being in possession of an unlicensed handgun. Massachusetts has a mandatory sentence of 18 months imprisonment for unlicensed carrying. And if you were convicted of such an offense and received a sentence of 1 year or more you would then be classified as a felon and banned under Federal law from ever owning a gun again. You can check out this list of penalties by State for illegal possession of firearms. It is essential that you consider the following to avoid violating any other State’s gun laws;
      Checking your destination states CCW reciprocity laws is the number one thing you must do as state concealed carry laws continue to change on a regular basis. You will need to check the laws in the state you will be traveling to and also in the states you will be traveling through to get to your destination. Federal law will cover you while traveling through states if you are in transit and have your firearm unloaded and in a locked container. New York state is the one exception as they will not recognize the federal law on interstate travel. It is essential that you have the most up-to-date information. I have noticed a number of websites that claim to give you current reciprocity state Laws. However, on close scrutiny, it appears these websites were made years ago and have never been updated to reflect new laws. Here at the GunsToCarry website, we check every day to make sure we keep up with any changes in the law and bring you the most recent information.
      amtrak train going through railway crossing
      If you’re not traveling in a private vehicle then things can become a bit more complicated. Most airlines and train services will have a check in service for firearms so make sure your firearm is checked in. There can be additional restrictions if you use a bus or metro line. For example, transportation of firearms on MARTA (Atlanta, Georgia) is only legal if you are legally licensed to carry one. If you are licensed, you must have the license with you at all times while carrying your firearm. Firearms are also not permitted on Greyhound buses and cannot be checked in.
      A number of states have enacted laws that are specific only to that state. These laws can restrict the type of gun, class of gun, magazine size etc. As an example, we have included a table of high-capacity magazine restrictions in some States.

      StateMax RoundsNotes
      California>10Does not prohibit possession
      District of Columbia>10Does prohibit possession
      Hawaii>10Does prohibit possession
      Maryland>20Does not prohibit possession
      Massachusetts10+Does prohibit possession
      New Jersey15+Does prohibit possession
      New York>10Does prohibit possession
      The Firearm Owners Protection Act is your best friend on interstate trips. In fact, it is the only protection you have while traveling through states you do not have a permit in. For it to be an effective defense you must strictly follow the requirements of this law. The Act will only protect you if you adhere to the following rules;

      How to Use The FOPA

      • Connector.

        Must be in transit

        You must be traveling to destination where your permit is legal.

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        Firearm is unloaded

        All ammunition must be removed from the firearm.

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        Firearm is in locked container

        Firearm must be placed in gun safe or locked container.

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        Firearm is in trunk of vehicle

        Locked container must be placed in part of vehicle not readily accessible. Not the console or glove box.

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        Do not stop

        Ideally you should not stop but you are permitted to stop at rest areas and service stations.

      New York does not recognize this federal law so you need to remain wary of traveling through this state and possibly avoid it. If you are stopped by the New York police you will be arrested and charged with possession of an unlicensed firearm.
      There are a number of other precautions you can take;

      • Do not give law enforcement probable cause. Your vehicle cannot be legally searched without a warrant, due probable cause or your consent. So if you are stopped then do not give law enforcement permission to search your vehicle.
      • Only stop if it is essential. You are generally permitted to stop at rest areas and service stations and even hotels overnight, but staying any longer will weaken the law and leave you unprotected.
      • Leave the firearm locked up. At no point while in transit should you ever remove the firearm from the locked case and handle it. It is essential that the firearm remains locked up until you reach your destination if you want to remain protected by the law.

      Permit Issue Policies

      Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Vermont, West Virginia, Wyoming

      Arkansas – disputed
      Idaho – residents only
      North Dakota – residents only, concealed carry only
      Wyoming – residents only

      States that have a limited form of permitless carry
      Montana – outside city limits
      New Mexico – unloaded firearm & loaded magazine, vehicle carry
      Oklahoma – residents of constitutional states

      Most “Unrestricted” states still maintain a “Shall Issue” policy to allow for reciprocity with other states.

      Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

      These unrestricted states still have a shall issue policy for reciprocity purposes.
      Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, West Virginia, Wyoming

      California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island

      Districts & Territories
      District of Columbia

      There are currently no states that refuse to issue a permit. The only areas that refuse to issue permits are two US territories, American Samoa and the North Mariana Islands
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        Unrestricted Policy

        A permit/license is not required to carry a concealed handgun.

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        Shall Issue Policy

        The applicant only has to meet certain requirements set by law to obtain a permit.

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        May Issue Policy

        The issue of a permit is left to the discretion of the Sheriff or Police.

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        No Issue Policy

        Does not allow any private citizen to carry a concealed handgun in public.

      Policies Description

      Unrestricted jurisdictions do not require a permit to conceal carry a handgun. States that allow concealed carry without a permit are often referred to as constitutional carry states. The “Unrestricted” states can vary from full unrestricted carry to partly unrestricted with limits. These states allow any person who is legally allowed to possess a handgun to carry a concealed handgun in any place that has not been designated as off-limits.

      Three of these states will only allow their residents to carry without a permit with non-residents still needing a permit issued by their home state. These states are Idaho, North Dakota and Wyoming. The state of Mississippi only allows permit-less carry if the handgun is in a sheath, holster, purse, handbag, satchel or briefcase.

      Open carry without a permit is also allowed in these states except North Dakota and Missouri which has a ban on certain locations.

      The state of Vermont has always had permit-less carry and has never issued permits. If residents of Vermont wish to travel out-of-state with their firearm then their only choice is to obtain a permit in a state that has reciprocity agreements with their destination state. Florida concealed carry permits are popular as they can be used in 28 other states. All these constitutional carry states still issue permits on a “Shall Issue” policy to allow their residents to travel interstate.

      The partially unrestricted states are Montana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Montana will allow permit-less concealed carry outside certain locations, such as towns, cities and logging camps. New Mexico allows the concealed carry of a handgun without a permit if the firearm is unloaded. You can also carry a loaded handgun in an open or concealed manner if traveling in a vehicle, again without a permit. But as soon as you step outside the vehicle you will need a permit. The definition of a vehicle includes motorcycles, RVs, bicycles, or while riding a horse. Oklahoma will not allow its own residents to carry without a permit. However, if you are a resident of a permit-less carry state then you are legally entitled to open or conceal carry without a permit provided you have a valid state ID on you from your home state.

      Shall Issue jurisdictions require a permit to conceal carry a handgun. Applicants do not need to show “good cause” as to why they need a handgun and the issuing authority cannot deny them a permit if they meet all the requirements. To obtain a permit a person must meet certain criteria before a permit is issued. These requirements usually include a minimum age, residency, firearms training course, background checks, submitting fingerprints and more. The requirement varies from state to state with some states being more permissive than others.

      There are some states whose law is “May Issue” but operate like “Shall Issue” states. These include Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts and some cities and counties in California. The issuing authorities in these states have been instructed to issue permits to nearly everyone who meets the requirements.

      In Connecticut, the law states permits must be issued on a “May Issue” basis. However, various court rulings have forced the issuing authorities to issue permits on a “Shall Issue” basis to any person that meets the requirements. A 60 -day temporary permit is issued first and then a regular 5 year permit.

      Rhode Island has also been forced by the courts to issue permits on a “Shall Issue” basis. The Rhode Island Supreme Court ruled on October 25, 2016, that the issuance of permits is not discretionary and they must be issued to any person who meets the requirements.

      There are some states that require a refresher firearms course for renewing a permit while others allow for automatic renewal if the permit holder has filed the required documents before the permit expires.

      May Issue jurisdictions require a permit to carry a concealed handgun. However, the permit is harder to obtain than permits issued in a “Shall Issue” jurisdiction. This is mainly because the issuance of a permit is left to the discretion of the issuing authorities.

      In most “May Issue” states you will also need to show “good cause” as to why you need a handgun. Good cause can be highly subjective and this allows issuing authorities wide discretion in deciding who they will grant a permit to. Self defense is not usually accepted as good cause. Some jurisdictions will also require you to show “good cause” when a renewal application is made and why you should continue to have a firearm.

      A permit can even be revoked in certain states if it is determined “good cause” no longer exists for the permit holder to have a handgun. You can also find that some “May Issue” states require a person to be of good character. This involves the applicant submitting evidence in the form of references, resumes, credit history etc.

      “May Issue” states can range from permissive to restrictive which is largely based on each authorities willingness to issue permits.

      Concealed carry permits are nearly impossible to obtain in urban areas such as Long Island, Boston, New York City, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Furthermore, in California, Massachusetts and New York the requirements for “good cause” can vary between counties. The application process in New York City is tedious and time consuming. Waiting up to 8 months for a permit is not uncommon in NYC.

      No Issue states will not issue a permit and do not allow private citizens to carry a handgun, hence the term “No Issue”.

      Illinois was the last of the “No Issue” states but was forced to a “Shall Issue” jurisdiction in July 2013 after the states ban on concealed carry was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Seventh Court of Appeals in 2012.

      In practice, there are still “No Issue” states and districts. Hawaii, Maryland, New Jersey are legally “May Issue” states but act like “No Issue”. Some counties and cities in New York, California and Massachusetts all operate like “No Issue” states. Issuing authorities have been directed to rarely or in some cases never issue permits.

      Federal Gun Laws

      The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) was enacted on May 19, 1986, by President Ronald Reagan. It was designed to reform the Gun Control Act of 1968 due to reported abuse by the ATF and other issues. The Act also introduced new provisions such as a ban on machine guns, safe passage for travelers, registry prohibition, and clarification of who was a prohibited person. A detailed description of the Firearm Owners Protection Act can be viewed at Wikipedia by clicking on the link.

      We will focus on the Safe Passage Provision as it is the provision most related to reciprocity and out-of-state travel. The Safe Passage provision was introduced to protect persons traveling from state to state with a firearm. Before the FOPA a person traveling through a state with strict firearms laws could be incarcerated for a firearms offense.

      Now a gun owner can safely travel through a state where it would be illegal for him to possess a firearm if the possession of the firearm is legal in the state of origin and final destination. Certain conditions must be met to ensure the law will protect a person. These are that the person is just traveling through the state and only makes short stops for food and gas. The firearm is not accessible and is unloaded and in a locked container if the vehicle does not have a compartment separate from the driver’s compartment. The firearm may not be used for self-defense during the trip.

      18 U.S. Code § 926A – Interstate transportation of firearms

      Not withstanding any other provision of any law or any rule or regulation of a State or any political subdivision thereof, any person who is not otherwise prohibited by this chapter from transporting, shipping, or receiving a firearm shall be entitled to transport a firearm for any lawful purpose from any place where he may lawfully possess and carry such firearm to any other place where he may lawfully possess and carry such firearm if, during such transportation the firearm is unloaded, and neither the firearm nor any ammunition being transported is readily accessible or is directly accessible from the passenger compartment of such transporting vehicle: Provided, That in the case of a vehicle without a compartment separate from the driver’s compartment the firearm or ammunition shall be contained in a locked container other than the glove compartment or console.

      Frequently Asked Questions

      This will depend on what state your permit was issued in. If for example your permit was issued in Pennsylvania then you would go to the map at the top of this page and click on PA, this will bring up all the details on Pennsylvania gun laws as well as what states will honor that permit.
      There are no states that have a “No Issue” policy. In theory, you should be able to carry a gun in every state. However, the reality is that some states make it so difficult to obtain a permit that they basically operate on a “No Issue” policy. You can read more here.
      Reciprocity is simply whether or not another state will honor your permit. A state may honor all other states permits or only those states that meet certain conditions.

      Data Sources

      The following data was correct in July 2017 and is updated once per year.

      The number of permits has risen from 14.9 million to 16.3 million for this year (2017). Our counter will only accept whole numbers so we have to round the number of to16.

      % US territory no permit required for concealed carry.
      Is 40% if Alaska is included. Drops to 23% if you do not include Alaska.

      Source – Report from Crime Prevention Research Center


      July 22, 2017updated permit numbers to latest figures
      June 17 2017updated interface, added new travel info and other sections.
      June 29 2017Updated permit numbers to 14,917,279